Einstein predicted that light from distant stars when seen at the edge of the sun would appear to bend slightly.
If we can, just for a moment, abandon the dogma of conservation of mass and energy, we may approach the problem of mass deficit more easily.
What happens inside a star? Is there a way to reverse Einstein’s energy from mass - to use energy - massive amounts - to create matter?
Black Holes - Star Fonts
Any spinning object has energy as per:
E = 1/2 mv^2
Einstein refined to state energy:
E = mc^2
Whenever a body spins, work is done. If we were to hitch up a kite, rig up a sail or build a windmill we’d see how unlimited an amount of energy a large body such as our earth and its spin can produce.
Energy in the hot dense core of a star, or a supermassive black hole, as the body spins, might it be focused as with gravitational lensing, and condensed into matter?
Imagine wave energy being forced by a huge gravity well to bend, as Einstein famously predicted, but not just at the Sun's edge. Imagine in the core of the Milky Way a black hole the weight of fifty billion suns, like the one in the centre of many galaxies.
Recently it has been reported that at the edge of our view of the universe 'Blue Nugget' galaxies appear with supermassive black holes like our own. Blue Nuggets have few stars around them, however. That's perhaps what young galaxies look like, since these, being so far away, may only be viewed as they were billions of years ago. This helps to seal our view of stars as emerging over time from the galacticore fusion process. Spinning out.
Blue Nugget galaxies have few stars
Galaxies like these Blue Nuggets may have been the standard primitive form at the beginning of the expansion of the universe since they are only seen at the very limits of our telescopes' powers. Light speed retards our ability to see current views of objects so far away in spacetime.
Light Lag Limits Viewing
A question arises when factoring in light speed and viewing angles. Unless viewed flat-on, that is, perfectly perpendicular to the galactic disk in question, light speed will cause a lag that will give a false view.
Stars behind the core send light later than those in front of the core, in cases where galaxies are viewed edge-on. Starlight passing near the core will be lensed more than light from edges. Any tilt in the disk viewing plane will of necessity create a false image. We need computer algorithms to compensate for the variation in distance and provide more accurate models in real time.
One challenge given this stretch is to reevaluate current galaxy typology. Are 'elliptical galaxies' just spirals with gravitational lensing and light-speed lag effects blurring actual form? Can the actual form ever be seen other than at perfect perpendicularity?
New Mass - From Energy
Imagine the energy of a star lensing in the very densest core. We can start by rearranging Einstein’s formula and creating matter from energy:
To make 1 kg of new matter, we'll need almost 10^17 J of energy. More precisely 90 petajoules. A petajoule is 10^15 J.
The solar radiation (in Joules) received from the Sun by one square meter of the Earth's surface per second is:
1.37 × 10^3 J
Almost 60 trillion square meters at earth's surface are required to create 1 kg of new matter in 1 s. The total surface area of earth is 510 trillion square meters. But at the sun's face the power output is much, much higher.
The sun produces 3.9 x 10^26 J/s (W) at its surface. In the core this could be much higher. If we apply an inverse-square transformation and assume 99% of the radius to be traversed to reach the area where a planet of Mercury's size fits in the sun, the energy in the core might be (1/99)^-2 or 10000x as great as that at the surface, about 3.9 x 10^30 W.
3.9 x 10^30 W/9 x 10^16 (m/s)^2
= 4.3 x 10^13 kg of new matter/s
So how much energy is needed to make a planet? It depends on the mass. Mercury is 3.3 x 10^23 kg. If 1/10000 of the core's total energy output were being focused and condensed into new matter in a lensing process we can do some nominal estimates of the time required:
4.3 x 10^13 kg/s/10000
= 4.3 x 10^9 kg/s
3.3 x 10^23 kg/4.3x10^9 kg/s
= 7.7 x 10^13 s
Sounds like a lot. A year is about 3.2 x 10^7 s.
7.7 x 10^13 s/3.2 x 10^7 s/y
= 2.4 x 10^6 years
2.4 million years are needed using these numbers to create Mercury. This seems reasonable. What about a gas giant? The mass of Jupiter is 1.9 x 10^27 kg, around 5800 times that of Mercury. So it would take 5800x as long to make Jupiter. This is longer than the current age attributed to our solar system. However, if we consider the mass at the time of ejection from the sun as being much lighter than the current mass, say 10% as much, the time required is reduced to around 2.4 billion years, which does agree with current models in regards to age. We can also attribute more than 1/10000 of the energy being used in the fusion of matter from energy to speed things up.
What exactly takes place inside a gravity well? How exactly might matter be created from energy?
A wave of light can be bent by gravity in the core of a black hole, forming links and chains, stable localized snippets arranged into packets. Equal pressure from all sides in the centre of the gravity well causes wave circularization - the most stable configuration. Prefusion quantum soup.
It becomes quickly apparent that the problem of 'mass deficit' is merely a result of not seeing the masses of galaxies and stars as they appear in the present time. We are limited to views of these as they were in the past, before mass increase.
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